The ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah is the day of ‘Arafah, since it is on this day that the pilgrims gather at the mountain plain of ‘Arafah, praying and supplicating to their Lord.
It is mustahabb (highly recommended) for those who are not pilgrims to fast on this day, since the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the day of ‘Arafah, so he said, It expiates the sins (Minor) of the past year and the coming year.
[Musulman (no. 1162)]
Imaam at-Tirmidhee (d.275H, rahimahullaah) dit: “The People of Knowledge consider it recommended to fast on the day of ‘Arafah, except for those at ‘Arafah.” [Musulman (no. 1348)]